Ramanujam and Satyendranath Bose

I knew only the story of Indian mathematician Ramanujan and Prof. Hardy, and how Prof Hardy introduced Ramanujam and his works on number to the entire world:

“Indian mathematician who was self-taught and had an uncanny mathematical manipulative ability. Ramanujan was unable to pass his school examinations in India, and could only obtain a clerk’s position in the city of Madras. However, he continued to pursue his own mathematics, and sent letters to three mathematicians in England (which arrived in January of 1913) containing some of his results. While two of the three returned the letters unopened, G. H. Hardy recognized Ramanujan’s intrinsic mathematical ability and arranged for him to come to Cambridge.” (Refer)

Here is the other story of Satyendranath Bose.

Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, the foremost expert in the new science of networks in US, in his book, Linked, has a chapter, ‘Einstein’s Legacy’ that has an interesting mention of Satyendranath Bose. I happened to go through the portion in the book last weekend while travelling to Boone with the family. It excited me as I have seen Bose during IIT’s days, when he visited Azad Hall and got an opportunity to talk with him. During my years in Hindu Hostel of Presidency College, I had also heard the stories about the academic competitions between Satyendranath Bose and Meghnath Saha while they were still students.

“In June 1924 Albert Eintein received a letter and a brief manuscript, written in English, from an unknown Indian physicist from Dacca named Satyendranath Bose. Unknown to Einstein, the manuscript had been recently rejected by the ‘Philosophical Magazine of the Royal Society’ in London. Einstein liked the manuscript so much that he set aside his own work and translated it into German, arranging for its publication in ‘Zeitschrift fur Physik’. He even added a praising note:”In my opinion, Bose’s derivation of the Plank formula signifies an important advance. The method used also yields the quantum theory of an ideal gas as I will work out in detail elsewhere.”
—– ——-
“Bose’s paper was still at the publisher when Einstein appeared at the Prussian Academy to present his own rebuts, titled ‘Quantum Theory of Single-atom Gases’, in which he extended Bose’s method to gas molecules. Six months later he was ready with yet another publication, the ‘Second Treatise’. In these papers Einstein predicted a very strange phenomenon, known today as ‘Bose-Einstein condensation’.

“At ordinary temperatures gas atoms bounce into each other at different speeds. Some are fast, others are slow. In the language of physics, some of them have high energy, others have low. If you cool the gas all the atoms slow down.To bring them to a halt, you would have to cool the gas to absolute zero, an attainable temperature. Einstein predicted that if a gas made of indistinguishable atoms is sufficiently chilled, a significant fraction of the particles will settle to the lowest energy. That is, atoms can be forced into their lowest energy state at a critical temperature above absolute zero. When particles reach this state, they form a new form of matter called a Bose-Einstein condensate.”
“Then in 1995 a group from the National Institute of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, led by Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Weiman, cooled rubidium atoms to low enough temperatures to form a Bose-Einstein condensate.”

“According to a July 2012 New York Times article in which Bose is described as the “Father of the ‘God Particle'”, the scientist’s interests wandered into other fields, including philosophy, literature and the Indian independence movement. He published another physics paper in 1937 and in the early 1950s worked on unified field theories. Several Nobel Prizes were awarded for research related to the concepts of the boson and the Bose-Einstein Condensate. Bose was never awarded a Nobel Prize, despite his work on particle statistics, which clarified the behavior of photons and “opened the door to new ideas on statistics of Microsystems that obey the rules of quantum theory,” according to physicist Jayant Narlikar, who said Bose’s finding was one of the top 10 achievements of 20th-century Indian science.”

And 2013, Nobel ….
Why doesn’t Mother India produce sons such as Raman, Ramanujan or Satyendranath Bose?

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