ISRO could develop the high tech cryogenic engines for its launches such as Chandrayaan-2 against the international blocking of transfer of technology because of its nuclear test in 1974. Over 25-30 years ago, Isro was desperate to develop the cryogenic technology for its GSLV rocket.In early 1990s, India had approached the US, Soviet Union, Japan and France for cryo technology. Only Soviet Union came forward. But Moscow too stepped back when the US cited a violation of the international Missile Technology Control Regime.But ISRO pursued the task of the development of the sophisticated engine and has finally succeeded.The recent glitch causing the suspension of the launch in its first attempt was minor and got detected and corrected in no time. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/science/how-isro-toiled-for-years-to-develop-cryo-engine-to-power-bahubali/articleshow/70339729.cms?utm_source=ETTopNews&utm_medium=HPTN&utm_campaign=AL1&utm_content=23)
ISRO quite early in its run started to avoid the dependence on import.It led to low costs by designing most of the parts for its programme and by outsourcing to the domestic private sector.In Chandrayaan-2 mission,Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and Godrej group contributed with hardware and testing solutions. The GSLV MkIII launch vehicle was powered at lift-off by twin S200 solid boosters comprising head end, middle and nozzle end segments manufactured at L&T’s Powai Aerospace Workshop. L&T also carried out Proof Pressure Testing to ascertain the integrity and impeccable fabrication quality of the entire S200 solid boosters. The company also supplied hardware like Umbilical and Honey Comb Deck Panels that were used in this launch. L&T has played a significant role in the Indian space programme and has been associated with all generations of launch vehicles including the latest GSLV Mk-III, which is being used for the Chandrayaan-2.Critical equipment such as L110 engine and CE20 engine for the launcher Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III (GSLV Mk III), thrusters for the Orbiter and Lander, and components for the DSN antenna, were all provided by Godrej Aerospace, a business of Godrej & Boyce.SAIL developed the critical steels for components desired by ISRO.Apart from these large corporates, companies like Ananth Technologies, MTAR Technologies, Inox Technologies, Lakshmi Machine Works, Centum Avasarala and Karnataka Hybrid Microdevices, are reported to have contributed to the successful launch of the mission. https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/chandrayaan-2-mission-from-godrej-to-l-t-private-sector-plays-a-key-role-119072201362_1.html
But look at DRDO and HAL way of working that has failed to master the design of Kaveri turbine engine and develop in in-house that were to power Tejas fighters and its subsequent upgradation. Similar exercises by the companies such as Tata Motors and Mahindra have made them a globally competitive automobile companies. The Government of India, the earlier ones and even the one at present have failed to overcome the hurdles in making the manufacturing sector a lucrative sector to become a world leader in manufacturing of the hardware and software in every sector. For example, look at the real estate, cell phone and solar sectors, most of the requirements of huge quantity required for competitive manufacturing are being imported from China and other countries including SE. countries.It is because of the political leaders with very little knowledge of engineering, management or missionary national approach that India will never become a great manufacturing country even with half-hearted Make in India campaign, particularly when big business houses are gradually closing down their manufacturing units and have interest in fast money making sectors such as retails, finance and not manufacturing.India will have to have persons such as Steve Jobs of Apple and Elon Musk of USA even if it wishes to copy US model of capitalism.